Found in the Arctic tundra, Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, Alaska, and Canada
There are two varieties: tundra reindeer and forest reindeer.
Large males can stand more than 1.2 meters (3.9 feet) tall at the shoulder
Colour varies from whitish in winter to brown in summer.
Uniquely in the deer family, the antlers grow on both male and female reindeer. But unlike males, female reindeer keep their antlers all winter.
Summer food is grass, sedges, green leaves of shrubs and new growth of larch. In winter reindeer rely on high-carbohydrate lichens called reindeer moss, which they reach by digging craters in the snow
One adult caribou eats about 5 kg (12 pounds) of food each day
Nearly 3 million domestic reindeer live in northern Europe. They are important to traditional herders such as the Sami of Scandinavia and Russia, who exploit them as a pack and draft animals for meat, milk, and hides
Normally travelling about 19–55 km (12–34 mi) a day while migrating, the reindeer can run at speeds of 60–80 km/h (37–50 mph)
A reindeer can swim easily and quickly, and migrating herds will not hesitate to swim across a large lake or broad river.
Lifespan is about 15 years in the wild, 20 in captivity.